- Africa / Central Europe
- National System of the Education and MET
The system of maritime education and training in Russia is a part of entire national educational system. The rules and regulations of study in maritime institutions (MET), including scientific degrees, awarding academic certificates, diplomas and etc. are the same as those in national universities and technical colleges supervised by the Ministry of Education. The graduates of MET institutions can continue their education in the institutions and universities other than MET system. The Ministry of Transport together with Ministry of Education provide for necessary theoretical and practical knowledge in the curriculum for developing professional competence in accordance with STCW Conventions and Industry requirements.
Met in Russia is effected on three educational – qualification levels:
1. Secondary maritime training - provided by marine colleges and schools;
2. Professional university education – provided by maritime academies;
3. Higher scientific education – provided by maritime academies.
All MET institutions in Russia are state. There are no private MET institutions.
As to marine training, MET on the first level prepares students of auxiliary level (sailors) for work on board. However these sailors after marine service can enter maritime academy at the department of external education, which gives six year training. The curriculum includes 6-8 week studies, practical training twice a year and 6 months studies during the fourth academic year for obtaining the Certificate of Competence on the operational level and getting the Diploma.
Another scheme on level 1 provides for MET during three and a half years, it involves on board training. The graduates can serve on ships holding a position of senior auxiliary level. The students enter academy for a special short course of studies either just on graduating the first level education or after the service on sea. After graduating the said course in MET a student is ready for performing the management level functions and getting a diploma, equivalent to diploma of full-time students.
Level 2 at the academies provides 5.5 years studies with academic diploma equivalent to the Master of Science and specialties: Navigator and Marine Engineer depending on the type of training. This level provides for 12 months on board training and obligatory short courses permitting to obtain Certificate of Competence on operational level and approval of the State Attestation Commission. As a result students finish higher MET education and obtain the right to perform managerial functions.
MET on level 3 is designated for higher scientific education and obtaining Diploma and Degree of Doctor.
There are 22 institutions providing MET on different levels for different purposes. Ten of these institutions, including three maritime academies, marine college and 6 marine schools, are under the supervision of “Department of marine education and training for sea-going fleet” (MPMSFD) and provide MET for sea-going fleet. The remaining twelve institutions MET provide training primarily for river fleet and are under the supervision of “Department of marine education and training for river fleet” (MPMRFD).
The Ministry of Education and Ministry of Transport defined seven specialties for navigators and engineers. These specialties are awarded code numbers which can be taken from Harbour Master to evaluate seafarers for obtaining Certificate of Competence.
All Marine schools and colleges depending on territory location are supervised by three academies with the purpose of study standards control. Accredited institutions providing MET for regular Certificates of Competence on operational level are the following:
Admiral Makarov Maritime State Academy in Saint-Petersburg (AMSMA);
Admiral Ushakov Maritime State Academy in Novorossiysk (AUMSA);
Far EastState Maritime Academy (FESMA) in Vladivostok.
Figures 1 and 2 show career growth of deck and engine officers since their entering MET up to the higher level of obtaining Certificate of Competence. Figures 3 and 4 show the level development of MET, increase of practical experience on board and certificates according to STCW for deck and engine officers, accordingly.
These three academies provide MET up to managerial level and observe curriculum in accordance with STCW – 95. The hours for lectures, practical studies, work in the laboratories, shops and simulators being the main subjects for professional growth from operational level to the managerial level.
Mandatory short courses and the courses for special training in accordance with special type ships requirements.
In accordance with rec. VI STCW-95 training at basic safety courses became obligatory while employing seafarers for ships of any capacity, e.g even for taking sailing practice. Taking safety courses is also obligatory for the officers wishing to obtain certificate on the operational level in navigation and engineering disciplines. Obligatory is also the training ARPA, GMDSS and SOLAS for obtaining certificates of Watch officer. The training of seafarers for special operations on board special type ships such as tankers, passenger ships and etc. became also obligatory. The academies have their own centers of training providing studies at obligatory short courses and carrying out preparation for specialized vessels. The centers also provide courses for qualification up-grade. While the centres are part of the academy they act as separate units . Seafarers pay for training in the centres. Equipment and study materials, belonging to the centres and academy are used both for full-time education and for courses with external form of study.
Training centres were also established by some shipping companies, e.g. the shipping company “Novoship” has arranged its own center for training seafarers. This center is used primarily for training ship’s crews of the company, but the equipment is also used for training outside persons provided they pay. The standard of curriculum, equipment and recourses are controlled by the Harbour Master. Accordingly, such center is established in Vladivostok at the shipping company. The centres and academies have an agreement of mutual using some equipment.
Resources and facilities.
The academies provide the higher education on the level of “Master of Science” degree and have possibility for preparing degree of ‘Doctor of Science”. Qualification of the teaching staff is defined by the rules adopted by the institutions of university level. Qualification of the teaching staff meets the requirements of the fact that the lecturers and even professors at the top of MET institutions, who teach subjects according to STCW -95 competence, should have at least the degree of Master or equivalent one and also an experience of sea service. The academies supply their teachers, from time to time, with possibility of on board service for mastering and obtaining practical experience to get certificates of higher level. This arrangement provides teachers with financial motivation. The teaching staff is controlled by special department of the Ministry of Education. In respect of up-grading the teachers publish works and scientific papers. The academies encourage career growth of the teaching staff and welcome obtaining diplomas of “Doctor”, which they can get in their own academies. The academies also arrange special programs on teaching technology and pedagogy for young teachers.
The quality and quantity of teachers is satisfactory in all three academies. The ratio of young professionals and old experienced teachers is good. Young teachers prefer to use new technologies such as simulators, computers. Although the number of students who have chosen marine specialties MET remains the same the quantity of teachers varies. Table 1 shows the ration of students and lecturers (with sea service experience) with regard to full course of study.
Average annual registration
Lecturers with sea practice
Ratio of students and lecturers
Academy in Saint-Petersburg
Academy in Novorossiysk
Academy in Vladivostok
The above academies pay special attention to practical training in compliance with theoretical program. Laboratories and shops are well equipped with study manuals and are adopted for practical experiments and exercises. The academies have sufficient number of simulators for mandatory course GMDSS. The academies also have simulators for handling ship, cargo operations and engine; PC software is available for obtaining practical skills and self study. All academies have good premises for lessons and practical studies. In all three academies military training is a part of curriculum.
National system of the education
Higher professional education (engineering, economic, humanities specialties):
•“Bachelor of Science” degree: course duration – 4 years;
•“Master of Science” degree: course duration – 2 years;
•“Specialist” or “Engineer-specialist” qualification: course duration – 5 years;
•Post-graduate studies (leading to PhD): course duration – 3 years.
One academic year in Russian Universities lasts for 10 months (September 1st – June 30th). The academic year is divided into two semesters: the first semester is September 1st – January 25th; the second semester is February 9th – June 30th. At the end of each semester (January and June) students take tests and exams in the disciplines that they have studied. Between semesters students have vacations: winter vacation (2 weeks: from 25th January to 9th February), and summer vacation (2 months: from 1st July to 30th August). During winter and summer vacations students may either stay in Russia or travel home.
Grading system in the Russian Federation:
«5» – excellent; «4» – good; «3» – satisfactory; «2» – unsatisfactory; – «pass» and «not pass». The lowest passing score is «3» or «pass».
Mode and language of study
In Russia different modes of study exist, though for international students only full-time, face-to-face mode is available (students from the CIS countries who are fluent in Russian may also study via distance learning).
Studies in Russian universities are carried out in Russian language. In some specialties the training is also delivered in English (about 20 specialties) and French (general medicine, pharmacy). Candidates choosing the training in English or French must have an interview to check their language competency upon arrival. The results of international language tests (e.g., IELTS, TOEFL, CAE, DALF, TCF etc.) are not required. Irrespective of medium of instruction, a Russian language course is an integral and important part of the curriculum. Knowledge of Russian language is essential for international students in Russia for everyday life, communication in and outside the university, and for comprehensive use of the millions of pieces of educational literature available throughout the whole period of study. If a student chooses to study in Russian, he/she spends the first year on a foundation course, where for 7-10 months he/she studies Russian language and other major subjects of the future specialty: medical & biological stream – chemistry and biology; economic and engineering stream – math, physics and information technology; humanities stream – history, social science, literature etc. The university may include other subjects in the curriculum of the foundation course.
Upon successful completion of university, graduates receive higher education degrees of the Russian national standard confirming the obtaining of higher education and indicating the degree/qualification (“Bachelor of Science”, “Master of Science”, “Specialist/Engineer-Specialist”) and specialty. Graduates also get an additional document upon request – a “European Appendix” that allows them to get equivalence of the degree in any of 47 European and other countries signed to the Lisbon Recognition Convention and Bologna declaration on the creation of a European Higher Education Area; this enables graduates to continue their education or find work in these countries. The recognition of Russian degrees all over the world is guaranteed in accordance with concluded intergovernmental and international agreements. At the present time all Russian state university degrees are recognized all over the world.
Admission requirements for Russian state universities
Applications for study on a foundation course are accepted from 1st March until 1st October. Classes start from 20th September (subject to there being enough students to start a group). It is recommended that students arrive no later than 15th November for study on foundation courses.
Applications for study on main courses (first and subsequent years) are accepted from 1st March until 15th August of each year for passport-holders of visa-free countries and from 1st March until 15th July for passport holders of countries requiring a visa. Classes start from 1st September.
A foreign citizen can be admitted to Russian state university if the following requirements are met:
- for Bachelor’s or Specialist’s programs, if:
He/she has a document of complete secondary education or any other equivalent document;
- for Master’s program, if:
He/she has a “Bachelor’s degree” or a “Specialist’s degree” with the course duration not less than 4 years;
- for postgraduate studies (PhD), if:
He/she has a “Master’s degree” (with the course duration not less than 2 years) or a “Specialist’s degree” with the course duration not less than 5 years
- Academic MET
1.Admiral Makarov State University of Maritime and Inland Shipping
Applicants can choose among 29 specialties and obtain Bachelor's, Master's Degree or Specialist's Qualification to be able to work on ships of the inland fleet and navy and coastal enterprises. The most popular faculties are those with the names connected with adventures and scientific discoveries: Faculties of Ship Navigation, Ship Mechanics, Electrical Engineering, Shipbuilding, Operation of Port Equipment and Transport Terminals. Upon graduation a student receives the Degree of Admiral Makarov State University of Maritime and Inland Shipping and a certificate confirming that this degree is recognized in Great Britain and approved by London Institute of Marine Engineers. This significant appendix gives career opportunities to a graduate on the world's level. At present approximately 10 000 students from more than 40 countries of the world study in the University. It maintains close friendly and scientific relations with State Universities of Germany, Holland, Great Britain, Poland, China and many other countries. Professors and students often go abroad for their trainings.
2 Admiral Ushakov Maritime State University:
The Academy prepares personnel in 14 specialties of higher vocational education. It comprises 5 faculties; including Faculty of Water Transport Operation and Navigation, MARINE ENGINEERING FACULTY, Faculty of Economics and Management and Faculty of International and Marine Law, 36 departments, Southern Regional Center of Additional and Vocational Training (SRCAVT), branches in Rostov-na-Donu, Sevastopol and Astrakhan.
3 Far Eastern State Technical Fisheries University:
Navigation Institute: Ship Helming, Ship Navigation, Electrical Engineering, Engineering Devices of Navigation and Ultrasonic Devices, Applied Mathematics, Higher Mathematics, Marine Meteorology and Life Safety, Ship Electrical Engineering and Automatics, Ship Power Plants, English Language
Navigation Institute of FESTFU trains highly qualified personnel for the fishery fleet of Russian Far East. There are following certified educational simulators centers in the Institute: Basic training, Training in struggle with fire according to expand program, Specialist in boats and rafts, First medical help, Global Maritime Distress and Safety System, Radio Detection and Ranging Equipment, Arranging of sea watch, Maneuvering and ship helming, etc. The simulators are constructed on the newest software and hardware bases with the modern computer park and elements of real equipment; they are surveyed and certified by Federal Fisheries Agency and the Ministry of Transport of Russian Federation. Training on the simulators helps to nail down theoretical knowledge on practice.
Cadets and students of the Navigation Institute have practice onboard sail training ship Pallada which belongs to FESTFU and onboard fishing, processing and transport vessels of different companies and countries. Due to this fact upon graduation students get not only a higher education diploma but also the first maritime work diploma.
All graduates of Navigation Institute easily find good jobs and have wide perspectives of making a career.
Institute of Economy and Management: Accounting and Audit, Marketing, Statistics and Economical Analysis, Management, Finance and Credit, Economics of Production, Economics and Political Science, Sociology and Social Psychology, Philosophy,
Institute of Applied Biotechnology
Institute of Economics and Management founded on the basis of engineering and economics department has a highly developed scientific and educational potential and more than 50 years experience in training economists and managers for fisheries and food industries of the Russian Far East.
The newest methods of training let highly qualified teachers (among them there are 6 professors in economics and management) train specialists who can work on domestic and foreign markets. There is a laboratory of modern management technologies in the institute. Scientists, post graduate students and the best undergraduate students are the active participants of different scientific conferences including international conferences.
Institute of Applied Biotechnology: Food Technology, Animal Raw Materials Products Technology, Standardization and Certification, Non-Organic Chemistry, Physics
The history of Institute of Applied Biotechnology began from the Department of Fish Products Technology, established in 1930. The best specialists of Far Eastern region who have Candidate’s and Doctor’s of Sciences Degrees work at the Institute. The institute provides a wide range of majors to be necessary for food industry not only in Primorsky region, but also all over the country.
Besides, the institute trains Bachelors and Masters on Food technology. One more significant prospect of the Institute is to establish new majors on master’s program.
All graduates of the Institute are claimed in the following fields of the industry, because the mechanical engineer provides qualitative work of modern enterprises.
Institute of Food and Refrigerating Engineering: Machinery, Theory of Machines and Mechanisms, Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Technology of Construction Materials, Engineering and Service, Heat Engineering and Hydraulic, Relative Geometry and Computer Graphics, Refrigerating Machines and Plants, Food Engineering, Labor Protection, Principle of Government and Law
The development of fishing and food industry is impossible without modern technique, high-skilled specialists, who are skillful in using high-tech equipment and effectively the process of production. Institute of Food and Refrigerating Machinery, established on the basis of Faculty of Mechanics, is the only institute at Far East that trains engineers for maintenance for fishing, processing and food industries.
Students are taught by highly skilled teachers, who have great experience in practical work. Many of them are honored members of Russian fishing industry. Institute is equipped with high-tech task-specific and computer equipment, which promote the training of specialists in the field of working out and exploitation of high capacity production equipment. This equipment allows yielding products with high application properties.
Institute of Fishery and Aquaculture: Water Bioresources, Aquaculture, Bioecology, Industrial Fishery, Computer Science and Graphics
Institute of Fishery and Aquaculture of FESTFU founded on the basis of fisheries department trains highly qualified specialists for the fisheries branch which is one of the most important components of national security.
Educational base of the Institute of Fishery and Aquaculture is equipped with the modern computers, mechanical and electronic simulators, system of automated industrial processes design, specialized biological laboratories and marine museum.
Work practice of students is held in various companies of the fisheries branch, scientific and research institutes, construction bureaus, ecological organizations in charge of fishery resources protection. Every year the best students have a chance to get free exchange experience abroad in the companies and education fisheries centers of Japan, Korea and China.
- Non-academic MET
- Differences in Natinal MET
- Statistics of National MET